The most active farming techniques impact on growth, fruiting, the durability of the wood and the fruit quality is pruning. In the fertile gardens by trimming achieve the following results: support good growth; eliminate the overload of trees by crop achieving uniform fruiting years; maintain the high quality of the fruit; increase productivity and productive period of the garden; do not allow the transformation of trees in height, wide, strong thickening of the internal part of the crown.
The lack of pruning or severe pruning will adversely affect the development of the tree. The trees without cutting off the crown strongly thickened, the periodicity of fruiting, the fruit much smaller; excessive pruning delays the beginning of fruiting.
Depending on the purpose, age and breed there are types of cropping:
the shortening of the shoots
thinning dense crowns (Fig. 6)
reduction of the crown and rejuvenating.
Consists of removing broken, dry, decaying and badly damaged by pests and diseases branches.
Involves the removal of part of the annual increment, perennial and fruit-bearing branches (copiaza, fruit twig, ). The length is the topping of green shoots, pinciroli.
This method enhances the growth and branching of shoots, eliminates the overload of the tree harvest coffee, fruit. Shortening the length of 1/5 of the annual increment is considered to be weak, 1/3 — 1/2 moderate length and strong. Mild shortening growth is called long pruning, strong — short. In adult trees the shortening of complex branches by 1/3 is called a weak 1 1/2 —and 2/3 medium —strong.
Provides the best coverage. It promotes good growth and fruiting, improves the quality of spraying, reduces the spread of disease.
When thinning, remove competitors, crossing branches, unwanted fat shoots, thickening crown, close and rubbing branches. Produce a thinning cut branches at the ring. Make the cut at their base at the annular influx without leaving hemp. Cut branches deeper ring of the influx of this increases the cut surface, slows the healing of wounds.
the Shortening and thinning of branches operates in two ways: in the kidney (Fig. 7) and the transfer of the side branch. Cut into kidney, make oblique, starting from the base and ending to the top. You can't do too beveled cut, in this case, the Bud dries up, escape from it grows weak.
Reduction in crown involves removal of a species from part of the top, which hampered the harvest. First cut the center conductor to 1 — 1.2 m on the fifth-sixth single skeletal branch, then shorten the translation on the outer branching of the upper skeletal twigs which exceed a given height. Reduce crown is usually at the level of 3.5—4 m. Gardeners often shorten the crown of tall cherries, cutting off it together with the harvest, cut places cleaned and coated with a garden pitch.
Extends the period of operation of the plantations and dramatically increases productivity. There are two types of such pruning for older trees. The first one from fruit trees cut annually for one of the lower boughs at the height of 30-50 cm from the trunk. Thus rejuvenate three lower boughs, and then cut over her entire trunk.
The second type of pruning is trees of valuable species n classes, the decaying crown. Thus shorten the main trunk at a height of 1-1,2 m from soil level. If the trunk is severely damaged bark or wood (hollow formed) is substantially kamedetechenie (stone), the cut do lower damage but higher root neck at 25-30 cm Old trees of low value species and varieties impractical to rejuvenate, their writhing and replaced with new seedlings.
This work can begin after fall and carried out during winter — spring. Autumn and winter first make sanitary pruning. At temperatures below 2-3°C this work is not carried out. In the winter-spring period (end of February) cut apples, pears, plums, and in March — cherry, sweet cherry, peach, apricot, quince. The peach is cut dried and frozen branches, before Bud break are pruned branch. Young stands pruned at the end of March. To delay this work should not be carried out after the start of the growing season weakens the plants. Pruning of stone fruit in cold, wet weather can cause kamedetechenie.